Pickering Interfaces' Blog - Insights into Switching Technology

Understanding Programmable Resistors for Sensor Simulation in Test

Posted by Kim Otte on Oct 25, 2018 12:58:49 PM

If you think about it, sensors control much of our daily lives. Sensors ensure that the food in your refrigerator stays cold, programmable-resistors-image-for-whitepaper-lpcount your steps on a smartphone, and even protects you in an automobile accident. So many devices in our personal lives as well as in business and other markets contain sensors.

All these sensors add a layer of complexity to your test strategy, as you need to simulate them when testing the circuit board that makes decisions based on a sensor’s response. Since it is usually not practical to incorporate actual sensors into a test fixture, Pickering Interfaces has created external hardware that is designed to replace these sensors in a test program. In this paper, we will talk about sensor simulation and how to select these products. With Pickering’s history of more than 15 years designing programmable resistors, we have the expertise and product depth to play an important role in testing sensor-driven products.

Learn the right questions to ask when testing sensor-driven products.

  • What is a programmable resistor and why is it used for sensor simulation in test?
  • What are the different types and parameters for programmable resistors?
  • What if I need more accuracy in my test?
  • Are there different types of configurations I can use?

As you can see, there are many things to consider when selecting programmable resistor modules in test. It is undeniable that sensors are in virtually every application for electronics, making testing important, and sensor simulation can help you get there. We recommend you take a look at our latest whitepaper -

Understanding Programmable Resistors for Sensor Simulation in Test

To learn more, take a look at our web page: Programmable Resistor Solutions for Sensor Simulation or contact our simulation application engineers.

Topics: PXI, automated test system, test and measurement systems, PCI, Programmable Resistor, sensor simulation in test

Pickering 1000+ PXI Module FAQ's

Posted by Kim Otte on Nov 5, 2014 12:06:00 PM

With over 25 years of signal switching and instrumentation experience, we have learned that when it comes to electronic test –"One Size Does Not Fit All" – that is why we now offer over 1000 PXI modules. 

Below are a list of frequently asked questions on why and how we offer such a large range.


Why does Pickering offer so many modules?

We entered the PXI market in 1998 with just a few modules—since then, primarily through customer demand, our PXI range has grown to over 1000 modules. This has been driven by a number of application requirements including:

  • Number of input and output channels
  • Voltage1000-pxi-modules
  • Power
  • Current
  • Bandwidth
  • Switch time
  • Switching life
  • Switching technology
    • Reed Relay
    • EMR
    • Solid State
    • MEMS
    • Microwave Relay
  • Crosstalk/isolation
  • Budget limitations
  • Low noise
  • Switching configuration and density

These requirements are so varied that test engineers demand a very wide and ever increasing range of solutions. “One size fits all” just doesn’t work in switching for Test & Measurement.

Take a look at our PXI Switching web page, on the left under product navigation it shows a product count for the number of modules available by main category and for each sub-category.

What types of PXI modules are produced by Pickering?

While PXI Switching & Programmable Resistors (for sensor emulation) are our main focus, we serve your electronic test requirements in other ways. Our PXI product line includes:

With so many modules, how can I find the exact one I need?

product reference maps

We have recently redesigned our website so you can quickly drill down to the exact module you need. We also have easy-to-use product reference maps with an overview of our entire range on one sheet.

In addition, we have highly experienced sales and applications people who understand switching and sensor emulation, and are just a phone call or email away

With so many modules, is delivery time compromised?

No. Typical PXI module delivery time is three weeks for almost all module types, often faster if required.

So how does Pickering offer quick delivery for such a large product range?

All module production processes take place in our two factories on flexible, demand-based manufacturing lines. We have complete control of the whole manufacturing process—we do not subcontract any process; everything is designed and manufactured in-house.

How can Pickering possibly offer long-term product support on such a large range?

As stated above, our in-house manufacturing gives us complete product control. From time to time, we update designs to improve performance and reliability while seamlessly managing any component obsolescence issues, all while preserving form and fit compatibility. Typical PXI module lifetime is in excess of 20 years, which is very important for many of our customers, especially in the Mil/Aerospace and Transportation markets.

How can you maintain and repair all these modules?

Pickering offers fast repair on a quick turnaround basis at very reasonable cost.

Built-in Relay Self-Test (BIRST)

In addition, Pickering has a strong background in diagnostics. Modules with our BIRST™ feature can quickly diagnose down to component level. For most other modules, we have our eBIRST™ Switching System Test Tools, this toolset connects externally to the module and can diagnose faults quickly. All of our PXI modules carry a three-year warranty which is unaffected if users choose to undertake their own relay replacement.

Why not just offer software-configurable modules instead of so many different variants?

We do offer several software-configurable modules for customers who require this flexibility. However, these have not proved popular due to the added cost of configuration relays and the inherent disadvantages of lower switching density, reduced AC performance and crosstalk/isolation compromises.

Are Pickering PXI modules compatible with “NI PXI”?

PXImate-practical-guide-to-PXIThis is a common question. Yes, of course, all of our PXI modules are 100% compatible with PXI products from all other vendors, including NI, Keysight and the other 60 members of the PXI Systems Alliance (PXISA).

Interested in learning more about the PXI Standard? Take a look at the article: "What is PXI" or get a copy of the 5th edition of our PXImate book. Click here to get your free copy!

What about Software?

Our module drivers support all popular software languages, including LabVIEW, Visual Studio, ATEeasy, LabWindows/CVI. We also support Real Time operating systems like Real Time LINUX as well as LabVIEW RT.

Can I use Pickering PXI Modules with other common buses?

Almost all of our PXI Modules can also be used in our LXI Ethernet chassis.

With such a big PXI range, where will I find suitable cabling and connectors?

We don’t leave you struggling to figure out your connectivity. We offer a similarly large range of connectivity options and in we have an on-line Cable Design Tool where you can design your own custom cable assemblies. 

We also have strong partnerships with the two mass interconnect companies, Mac Panel and VPC, who have 100’s of off-the-shelf as well as custom solutions.

Does Pickering really understand switching?

We are experts in switching technology. We have been designing and manufacturing modular switching systems since 1988, and our sister company, Pickering Electronics, has been designing and manufacturing instrumentation grade reed relays since 1968.

Switching expertise is in our DNA!

Have additional questions or comments? Please post your comment below or...

Please Contact Us To Learn More

Topics: PXI, PXI Switching, automated test system, test and measurement systems

What is PXI? Your Questions Answered.

Posted by Kim Otte on Jun 26, 2013 11:25:00 PM


So you want to learn more about PXI, well you've come to the right place - below you will find a introduction to PXI.

What is PXI - Background and History

PXI, short for PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation, is a rugged PC-based platform that offers a solution for measurement and automation systems. With PXI you benefit from the low-cost, high-performance, and flexibility of the latest PC technology and the benefits of an open industry standard. PXI combines standard PC technology with the mechanical form/factor from the CompactPCI™ specification, and added integrated timing and triggering to deliver a rugged platform with major performance improvements compared to other test and measurement architectures. 

PXI's mechanical, electrical, and software features define complete systems for test and measurement, data acquisition, and manufacturing applications. PXI has become a dominant industry standard for measurement and automation applications such as military and aerospace, automotive, manufacturing test, machine monitoring, and industrial test. 

The PXI Standard

PXI Systems Alliance

PXI is governed by the PXI Systems Alliance (PXISA), a group of more than 50 companies chartered to promote the standard, ensure interoperability, and maintain the PXI specification. Because PXI is an open specification, any vendor who joins the Consortium is able to build PXI products. CompactPCI, the standard regulated by the PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group (PICMG), and PXI modules can reside in the same PXI system without any conflict because interoperability between CompactPCI and PXI is a key feature of the PXI specification.

The PXI standard defines the mechanical, electrical and software interfaces provided by PXI compliant products, ensuring that integration costs and software costs are minimized, and allows for trouble free multi-vendor solutions to be implemented.

In use, a PXI system appears as an extension to the PCI slots in the user’s controller, regardless of whether the controller is embedded in the PXI chassis or is a separate computer.

Most PXI instrument modules are simple register based products that use software drivers to configure them as useful instruments; taking advantage of the increasing power of computers to improve hardware access and simplify embedded software in the modules. The open architecture allows hardware to be reconfigured to provide new facilities and features that are difficult to imitate in comparable bench instruments. 

The PXI modules, which provide the instrument functions, are plugged into a chassis. This chassis may include its own controller running industry standard operating systems, or a PCI to PXI bridge that provides a high speed link to a desktop PC. 

CompactPCI and PXI products are interchangeable, they can be used in either CompactPCI or PXI chassis, however installation in the alternate chassis type limits the functionality of certain features.

What is PXI - The System consists of three main components:

  • Pickering Interfaces PXI ChassisPXI chassis - the chassis is the backbone of the system - it contains a high performance
    backplane giving the cards in the system the ability to communicate rapidly with one another. It also provides power and cooling and the chassis normally ranges from four slots up to twenty. 

    The chassis are typically designed to house either 3U or 6U PXI modules. The PXI standard supports the design of chassis that allow both 3U and 6U modules. The PXI specification does not set a rigorous standard for what can be included in a PXI chassis, though all must comply with the mandatory parts of the specification. For that reason, PXI chassis vary in their capability and the user needs to choose the chassis that is right for their specific application.

  • The System Controller- The PXI chassis can use either an embedded controller in the Slot 1 position, or an interface module allowing connection to an external controller (such as a PC). The use of a standard PC provides a particularly cost effective, but powerful option.

The choice of the type of PXI controller will vary depending on the application. PXI has sufficient flexibility to enable it to be configured for internal embedded controllers, laptops and desktop PCs.
 
     
  • Pickering Interfaces PXI ModulesThe Modules - these come in many different varieties including test instruments that take a wide variety of measurements such as voltage, current, frequency as well as signal and waveform generators. They can also perform other functions including boundary scan test, image aquisition, power supplies, switching and more. 

PXI Software

The PXI standard is reliant on a standardized software and hardware environment. Since PXI is based on the PCI standard, many of the PCI routines can be moved into the PXI environment.The PXI modules cannot be controlled from a physical front panel, therefore software control via the backplane is required. Minimum requirements are for Window 32-bit drivers.  Some vendors support Linux or other OS’ as well, but Windows is the minimum.

IVI drivers are optional. IVI Drivers are sophisticated instrument drivers that feature increased performance and flexibility for more intricate test applications that require interchangeability, state-caching, or simulation of instruments. To learn more about IVI drivers, please visit the IVI Foundation's web site: http://www.ivifoundation.org

PXI Market Acceptance

In 2009 the PXISA announced that there were more than 100,000 PXI systems deployed containing more than 600,000 instruments. Today, there are more than 55 PXISA member companies that have produced more than 1,500 different PXI modules. (Source: PXISA web site) As shown in Figure 1, the 2011 Frost and Sullivan Modular Instrumentation study expects the PXI instrumentation market to grow at a compounded annual growth rate of 18.1% for the next 6 years.  At this rate, the PXI market is expected to exceed 1 billion USD by 2017.

Projected  PXI Modular Instrument Revenues by Standard

Figure 1 – Projected Modular Instrument Revenues by Standard

Source:  2011 Frost & Sullivan report “High Growth Test & Measurement Market Opportunity: Modular Instruments”

What is PXI Express?

As the commercial PC industry drastically improves the available bus bandwidth by upgrading from PCI to PCI Express, PXI has the ability to meet even more application needs by integrating PCI Express into the PXI standard. To ensure the successful integration of PCI Express technology into PXI and CompactPCI backplanes, engineers within the PXISA and the PICMG, worked to ensure that PCI Express technology can be integrated into the backplane while still preserving some compatibility with the large installed base of existing modules. With PXI Express, users will benefit from significantly increased bandwidth, guaranteed backward compatibility, and additional timing and synchronization features. 

Take a look at our Knowledgebase article - "Comparing PXI and PXI Express" 

You can also take a look at the PXI System Alliance's website  (www.pxisa.org) for more information on PXI Express.

PXImate-practical-guide-to-PXIWant more PXI Information?

Pickering Interfaces has published a book, PXImate, this book provides an overview of the PXI standard together with useful information about the technology behind the switching and instrumentation modules a typical chassis can contain. It is a guide for those new to PXI systems and a useful source of reference material for the more experienced.    

Click here to get your free copy!

Topics: PXI, PXI Switching