Pickering Interfaces' Blog - Insights into Switching Technology

Considerations for Effective PXI Test System Matrix Maintenance

Posted by Bob Stasonis on Jan 19, 2021 10:39:23 AM

A goal of any manufacturing organization is to maximize the time that their test systems are operational. A test system that is down due to maintenance issues costs a company significant dollars in unrealized revenue. Switching systems, and in particular, matrices, are central to most automated test systems and rely on relays as the switching element. Relays are mechanical in nature, and as such, may fail over time for various reasons. This white paper explores these issues and discusses methodologies that can help shorten repair cycle time, in turn, sustaining and maximizing system uptime.

Considerations for effective PXI test system maintenance

Matrices allow for very flexible connection strategies between a single core set of test equipment and one or more DUTs (Devices Under Test). This approach saves the cost of duplicating test equipment; however, it also means that the switching matrix is placed in a central, potentially vulnerable position, where it may be subjected to abuse or accidents during use due to programming errors in development, wiring errors or unexpected DUT faults. Typical repair cycles can take up to 2- 4 weeks and can be extended when faults cannot be reproduced at the OEM.

The main factors that affect test system matrix reliability are the choice of relay used for the signal switching, and the conditions under which the relays must operate. The relays used in most matrices are mechanical devices whose lifetime is determined by the quality of their construction and moving parts, and the contact materials. A faulty relay can bring a production line to a halt; therefore, quick identification of the fault and subsequent repair is crucial in getting the system quickly back online, enabling product shipping to resume. High-quality EMRs (electro-mechanical relays) can have lifetimes in the order of 100 million operations under light load conditions. Still, instrument-grade reed relays have lifetimes in excess of one billion operations, and it is for this reason, as well as their smaller size, that reed relays are generally preferred.

Factors That Influence Relay Lifetimes

The conditions under which relays are operated impact the integrity of the contact materials. While in most cases it is best to cold switch a signal – i.e., perform the switching operation without any applied current or voltage stimulus – that’s not always possible. But it must be noted thathot switching’ – opening or closing a relay while it is carrying a signal – reduces relay life. Relays that hot switch signals run hotter than relays that cold switch and their contacts will erode much faster. Both of these factors – temperature and contact damage - will cause the relay to fail sooner. In general, vendors life-test relays with resistive sources and loads. In the real world, however, loads can be both inductive and capacitive, and these loads can shorten relay life to a greater extent than simple resistive loads.

It is not always obvious how much voltage or current is being hot switched by a relay. For example, if a relay is connecting a low impedance source to a high impedance load, it could be expected that the switched current will be relatively low. However, if the cabling or load has significant parasitic capacitance, there may be a high surge current through the relay when it closes as the source charges the effective capacitor.

A relay may also experience a high surge current when it connects a source to a capacitive load that is carrying a charge from a previous state. This might occur, for example, when a switching system reverses the polarity on a DUT, or if an earlier operation has left a charge on a high impedance load.

Switching systems are also typically capacitive at their terminals. If a switching matrix has a large number of closures on a single Y-axis to X connections, the resulting capacitance can create an extra load that can shorten relay life when hot switching.

Resistance in the cable wiring and the PCB tracks can help reduce the surge currents and therefore increase relay life, but this effect declines rapidly as the signal voltage increases.

High current or high-power inrushes are the most damaging and most frequent cause of contact damage. As well as inrushes due to charging capacitive loads, discharging capacitors can be an even more significant issue as the current is often only limited by the resistance of the reed switch and PCB tracks. Even capacitors charged to quite low voltages can cause current inrushes of tens of amps, and although they may be for microseconds only, they can cause damage to small reed switches.

Common Failure Mechanism in Relay Switching

The most common failure mechanisms for switching system relays used to hot switch signals are:

  • Welded contacts - usually caused by high inrush currents as the contacts are closed, creating molten or soft metal in the contact area - Figure 1.
  • Contacts having variable or intermittent contact resistance. This occurs particularly at low current levels because of the erosion of the contact materials. It may also be that the relay is reaching end of life.
  • Failure to close – caused by severe erosion of the contacts or the build-up of debris on the contacts (more an issue with EMRs as their contacts are exposed to air; reed relays have hermetically sealed contacts).

A fuller discussion of factors that influence the lifetime of relays can be found in our white paper entitled  ‘Avoiding failure modes in switch systems for test.’

Often, failures in test systems are caused by accident. For example, cabling and software errors can cause parts of the system to be connected that were never intended to be, resulting in shorts on power supplies or turning hot switch events into capacitive loads. The relay may withstand these accidents, but it could suffer partial damage to its contacts, which will shorten its operational life as the system is used and ages. Even when the system is operating correctly, an attempt to test a faulty DUT can force operation beyond the relay specification, stressing the switching system.

Fault Diagnostics

Historically, due to demands from customers (usually military or aerospace), platforms such as VXI have offered a self-test facility for the relays. However, the extent of test coverage provided could be patchy. Sometimes only the control system was tested and not the relay contacts (the most likely part to fail); other practices tested the relay contacts through hardware internal to the switch module, but it could not test the integrity of the connector. Products based on smaller footprint platforms, such as PXI, did not initially provide self-test. This gave rise to perhaps one of the most misguided approaches to managing the issue – ‘relay counting’. Here, the software counts how many times a relay has been operated so that the relay can be replaced when the number of operations reaches a given threshold. This method is deeply flawed for several reasons:

  • Relay life changes by three orders of magnitude according to the load present. The software has little or more commonly no knowledge of the load. It is merely a counting system.
  • It takes no account of the accidents that happen in systems, such as UUT failures, that shorten relay life.
  • Relays are subject to significant variations in lifetime by batch.

The consequence of this is that real switching systems can have a much shorter or much longer life than a relay counting system will indicate.

Diagnostic Test Self Test Tools

The good news is that the status of self-test is changing. Pickering now provides PXI matrix solutions, which include a built-in self-test facility called BIRST™ (Built-In Relay Self-Test), which addresses the shortcomings of the older self-test systems and the relay counting methods. BIRST is implemented as a very compact hardware addition to the PXI modules; the source/measure hardware is on-board and measurements are made through the matrix. It works in conjunction with a dedicated software application to electrically explore the matrix, measuring the resistance of each signal path with repeatability measured in a few milliohms. The user simply needs to disconnect the PXI module from the test system and then run the BIRST program. The test process is fast, each relay requiring just a few 10s of milliseconds to test fully. The software then displays the test results as a graphical representation of the matrix, highlighting any relays that are faulty and allowing the user to identify the physical position of each faulty device quickly. Every relay is checked; welded closed and stuck open relays are quickly identified.

BIRST Built In Relay Self Test Display

BIRST only identifies those relays which need attention for maintenance and avoids unnecessary disturbance and system downtime. The tool can identify relays with higher than expected path resistance, allowing users to change those relays before they fail. Through-hole relays are extensively used on Pickering’s switch matrix modules, allowing the user to self service the module with commonly available tools and get it back into service quickly. We encourage this practice: warranties are unaffected, and we even supplies spare relays on each switch module for the purpose

Our eBIRST external diagnostic test tools work similarly to BIRST but require an external test tool to be connected to the switch module under test. The relay testing source/measure hardware is contained within the tool, and an eBIRST software application exercises both the module and the connected tool and returns the relay test results and analysis.

While BIRST identifies faults within the matrix, it cannot verify the switch module’s front panel connector. So if a connector is damaged in any way, BIRST will not help. This is a key advantage that eBIRST brings: it allows the user to analyze the switching system right out to the external interface. The eBIRST test hardware can be connected directly to every individual relay on the switch module via the external connector, and this results in superior fault resolution compared to the BIRST tool, which tests relays using discrete matrix paths consisting of multiple switches. Another significant advantage is that eBIRST is available for any configuration of the switch module, not just matrices.

Like BIRST, eBIRST enables faulty relays to be identified so they can be replaced by the user on-site with minimal downtime. As with BIRST, we encourage this practice, and again, the warranty is unaffected.

The eBIRST tools are self-contained; only a USB2 port on a PC running Windows and the supplied application program are additionally required. The program uses a Test Definition File created for each switching module that defines how to test it. This enables users to test any of our switching systems that use mechanical relays with precious metal contacts (typically contacts with a rating of 2A or less) and also those incorporating solid-state relays. DC coupled RF systems using SMB connectors are also supported using test adapters. Each tool is generic—it will support DC-coupled switching systems that use multi-pin connectors on our PXI, PCI and LXI controlled switching systems. eBIRST also supports all-new generations of our BRIC matrix solutions, which now feature cross-point counts of over 9000 in a compact PXI module.

Signal Routing Software

Once the user has run BIRST or eBIRST diagnostic test tools and has discovered a faulty relay in a matrix, they may find that testing is still halted as they do not have a spare matrix (or relay) in stock. However, by using our Switch Path Manager (SPM) software, there may be a way to keep the tester functioning until a replacement is available.

Switch Path Manager simplifies signal routing through switching systems and speeds up the development of switching system software. Switch Path Manager supports our switching modules and the interconnection between them. Once a switching system model has been created, signal routing can be performed simply by defining the endpoints that are required to be connected—the ability to automate signal routing results in effective and easy switching system management.

In the event described above where a faulty matrix relay is discovered, but no replacement is immediately available, and repair by the user is also not an option, the operator can use the Exclude Endpoint feature within SPM to instruct the router not to use that path in its calculations. Figure 3 shows a matrix connecting a power supply to a DUT. The left-hand side shows the relay closures necessary to make the connections. However, if a relay fails along the Y2 axis, in SPM, a single command can be used to set up the router to avoid using Y2. This is shown on the right-hand side of the figure where we see that the switch path that originally used Y2 now uses Y3. Once the matrix has been repaired or replaced, the test engineer can remove the exclusion, and the program will run as before.

Pickering's Switch Path Manager Software Features

A thorough understanding of the factors that adversely affect the life of mechanical relays – the critical component in a switching matrix – will enable preventative maintenance based on proper operating procedures. This will reduce test system downtime and improve productivity. If a component does fail, new test procedures will allow the rapid detection of the fault, and expedite its repair, or provide an effective means to work around the problem.

If you have questions on your PXI test system maintenance - please feel free to contact us or visit our Support Knowledgebase for answers.

Topics: PXI, automated test system, test and measurement systems, Relay Reliability, Relays, test system maintenance

Automating Test Within Manufacturing Processes - White Paper

Posted by Kelly Porter on Apr 2, 2020 2:29:37 PM

 

whitepaper-cover-automating-test-within-maufacturing-processesIt is best practice when automating test within a manufacturing process to consider interconnection as an extension of the test instrument. In production, the interface between a device under test (DUT) and the test instruments will likely include a network of cabling, a signal distribution or switching subsystem, a connector panel, and device-specific adapters. In essence, all of the cabling, interfacing and switching should now be considered as an extension of the test instrument and must be allowed for when assessing the instrument’s capabilities.

There are always potential issues in production to keep in mind between a device under test (DUT) and the test instruments, focusing on how path resistance, line capacitance and insertion loss affect test results and what can be done to minimize their impact. Signal routing for test would be considered to be perfect if the path between the test instrument and the device under test was electrically ‘invisible’. Of course, this is asking the impossible. This is why test engineers need to take care of the whole measurement channel by considering everything between the instrument and the DUT, including cables, switching subsystems, connectors and mass interconnect products.

Selecting a flexible switching platform that can cover a range of application requirements and provide for future expansion provides a solid foundation for a test system design. You also want to keep in mind that in some cases, cables are supplied with switch modules, so they will have been designed to work with that module. This is why Pickering's modular switching portfolio provides maximum flexibility for system designs. Pickering also has a dedicated facility that produces cables and accessories to ensure that the performance of the switching module is not compromised by poor interconnections. 

Read the entire white paper here to learn more about potential issues in production between a device under test (DUT) and the test instruments, focusing on how path resistance, line capacitance and insertion loss affect test results and what can be done to minimize their impact. 

If you have questions or need more information on automating test within your manufacturing process – please reach out to one of our engineers here.

Topics: PXI, automated test system, test and measurement systems, Device Under Test, DUT, Cables and Connectors

Using Switch Matrices in Complex Test and Verification Installations

Posted by Kelly Porter on Oct 17, 2019 3:27:28 PM


Switch matrices are a flexible solution that should be part of your test strategy to automate complex test and verification whitepaper-image-Switch-Matrices-in-Complex-Test-and-Verificationsystems, especially in demanding industries such as aerospace, defense, automotive and semiconductor manufacturing. These matrices help accelerate test times over a manual process for test and facilitate reliable, repeatable and accurate results by eliminating error-prone manual intervention. The use of switch matrices can also help consolidate test processes in one space, rather than be distributed around several locations. Depending on the matrix type, it can also simplify the efforts to add additional test programs to the test system because of its ‘any test point to any instrument’ capability. There are limitations on simultaneous multipoint access as well as bandwidth. But proper matrix selection can shrink your test system and make it more flexible for today and into the future.

There are specific things you can think about to help you to understand how the use of switch matrices can save time and cost, reduce test area floor-space and improve reliability. These include what type of matrix to use whether it be crosspoint, tree multiplexer, RF and Microwave etc. You also want to understand how to configure a large matrix where software packages like Pickering’s signal routing software, Switch Path Manager (SPM), can simplify this programming effort. The maintenance of a switching system to avoid vulnerable positions and much more must also be included in your test strategy.

To learn more on this subject, check out our newest white paper here:  Using switch matrices in complex test and verification installations

For more information take a look at our updated SwitchMate Book.  If you have questions please contact us.

Topics: PXI, automated test system, test and measurement systems, PCI, Programmable Resistor, sensor simulation in test

The Challenges Surrounding Switching for Automated Test Systems

Posted by Kelly Porter on Oct 3, 2019 10:35:27 AM


challenges-surrounding-ate-whitepaper-image

Automated test systems rely on the performance, quality, and configuration of the signal switching that they are based on, yet the most significant challenge when considering switching for automated test systems may not be technical at all. Often we hear from customers that they feel switching is the last portion of their test integration strategy that needs to be considered. Switching is so simple, maybe even boring… how can anyone go wrong?

Think about the questions you should ask yourself surrounding switching for automated test systems such as:

  • What is a the importance of high-quality switching?
  • What are the differences between reed relays, electromechanical relays and solid-state relays?
  • What types of switching configurations are available?
  • Which cables, connectors and mass interconnect products should be included with my switch module?

The switching system is intrinsic to the success of the test process, so it’s important to understand the possibilities and limitations. However dull switching may seem, there are very many challenges to be considered, but the information is all here to help you. To learn more on this subject, check out our newest white paper here:  The challenges surrounding switching for automated test systems

To learn more, take a look at our updated SwitchMate Book or if you have questions please contact us.

Topics: PXI, automated test system, test and measurement systems, PCI, Programmable Resistor, sensor simulation in test

Understanding Programmable Resistors for Sensor Simulation in Test

Posted by Kim Otte on Oct 25, 2018 12:58:49 PM

If you think about it, sensors control much of our daily lives. Sensors ensure that the food in your refrigerator stays cold, programmable-resistors-image-for-whitepaper-lpcount your steps on a smartphone, and even protects you in an automobile accident. So many devices in our personal lives as well as in business and other markets contain sensors.

All these sensors add a layer of complexity to your test strategy, as you need to simulate them when testing the circuit board that makes decisions based on a sensor’s response. Since it is usually not practical to incorporate actual sensors into a test fixture, Pickering Interfaces has created external hardware that is designed to replace these sensors in a test program. In this paper, we will talk about sensor simulation and how to select these products. With Pickering’s history of more than 15 years designing programmable resistors, we have the expertise and product depth to play an important role in testing sensor-driven products.

Learn the right questions to ask when testing sensor-driven products.

  • What is a programmable resistor and why is it used for sensor simulation in test?
  • What are the different types and parameters for programmable resistors?
  • What if I need more accuracy in my test?
  • Are there different types of configurations I can use?

As you can see, there are many things to consider when selecting programmable resistor modules in test. It is undeniable that sensors are in virtually every application for electronics, making testing important, and sensor simulation can help you get there. We recommend you take a look at our latest whitepaper -

Understanding Programmable Resistors for Sensor Simulation in Test

To learn more, take a look at our web page: Programmable Resistor Solutions for Sensor Simulation or contact our simulation application engineers.

Topics: PXI, automated test system, test and measurement systems, PCI, Programmable Resistor, sensor simulation in test

Pickering 1000+ PXI Module FAQ's

Posted by Kim Otte on Nov 5, 2014 12:06:00 PM

With over 25 years of signal switching and instrumentation experience, we have learned that when it comes to electronic test –"One Size Does Not Fit All" – that is why we now offer over 1000 PXI modules. 

Below are a list of frequently asked questions on why and how we offer such a large range.


Why does Pickering offer so many modules?

We entered the PXI market in 1998 with just a few modules—since then, primarily through customer demand, our PXI range has grown to over 1000 modules. This has been driven by a number of application requirements including:

  • Number of input and output channels
  • Voltage1000-pxi-modules
  • Power
  • Current
  • Bandwidth
  • Switch time
  • Switching life
  • Switching technology
    • Reed Relay
    • EMR
    • Solid State
    • MEMS
    • Microwave Relay
  • Crosstalk/isolation
  • Budget limitations
  • Low noise
  • Switching configuration and density

These requirements are so varied that test engineers demand a very wide and ever increasing range of solutions. “One size fits all” just doesn’t work in switching for Test & Measurement.

Take a look at our PXI Switching web page, on the left under product navigation it shows a product count for the number of modules available by main category and for each sub-category.

What types of PXI modules are produced by Pickering?

While PXI Switching & Programmable Resistors (for sensor emulation) are our main focus, we serve your electronic test requirements in other ways. Our PXI product line includes:

With so many modules, how can I find the exact one I need?

product reference maps

We have recently redesigned our website so you can quickly drill down to the exact module you need. We also have easy-to-use product reference maps with an overview of our entire range on one sheet.

In addition, we have highly experienced sales and applications people who understand switching and sensor emulation, and are just a phone call or email away

With so many modules, is delivery time compromised?

No. Typical PXI module delivery time is three weeks for almost all module types, often faster if required.

So how does Pickering offer quick delivery for such a large product range?

All module production processes take place in our two factories on flexible, demand-based manufacturing lines. We have complete control of the whole manufacturing process—we do not subcontract any process; everything is designed and manufactured in-house.

How can Pickering possibly offer long-term product support on such a large range?

As stated above, our in-house manufacturing gives us complete product control. From time to time, we update designs to improve performance and reliability while seamlessly managing any component obsolescence issues, all while preserving form and fit compatibility. Typical PXI module lifetime is in excess of 20 years, which is very important for many of our customers, especially in the Mil/Aerospace and Transportation markets.

How can you maintain and repair all these modules?

Pickering offers fast repair on a quick turnaround basis at very reasonable cost.

Built-in Relay Self-Test (BIRST)

In addition, Pickering has a strong background in diagnostics. Modules with our BIRST™ feature can quickly diagnose down to component level. For most other modules, we have our eBIRST™ Switching System Test Tools, this toolset connects externally to the module and can diagnose faults quickly. All of our PXI modules carry a three-year warranty which is unaffected if users choose to undertake their own relay replacement.

Why not just offer software-configurable modules instead of so many different variants?

We do offer several software-configurable modules for customers who require this flexibility. However, these have not proved popular due to the added cost of configuration relays and the inherent disadvantages of lower switching density, reduced AC performance and crosstalk/isolation compromises.

Are Pickering PXI modules compatible with “NI PXI”?

PXImate-practical-guide-to-PXIThis is a common question. Yes, of course, all of our PXI modules are 100% compatible with PXI products from all other vendors, including NI, Keysight and the other 60 members of the PXI Systems Alliance (PXISA).

Interested in learning more about the PXI Standard? Take a look at the article: "What is PXI" or get a copy of the 5th edition of our PXImate book. Click here to get your free copy!

What about Software?

Our module drivers support all popular software languages, including LabVIEW, Visual Studio, ATEeasy, LabWindows/CVI. We also support Real Time operating systems like Real Time LINUX as well as LabVIEW RT.

Can I use Pickering PXI Modules with other common buses?

Almost all of our PXI Modules can also be used in our LXI Ethernet chassis.

With such a big PXI range, where will I find suitable cabling and connectors?

We don’t leave you struggling to figure out your connectivity. We offer a similarly large range of connectivity options and in we have an on-line Cable Design Tool where you can design your own custom cable assemblies. 

We also have strong partnerships with the two mass interconnect companies, Mac Panel and VPC, who have 100’s of off-the-shelf as well as custom solutions.

Does Pickering really understand switching?

We are experts in switching technology. We have been designing and manufacturing modular switching systems since 1988, and our sister company, Pickering Electronics, has been designing and manufacturing instrumentation grade reed relays since 1968.

Switching expertise is in our DNA!

Have additional questions or comments? Please post your comment below or...

Please Contact Us To Learn More

Topics: PXI, PXI Switching, automated test system, test and measurement systems

What is PXI? Your Questions Answered.

Posted by Kim Otte on Jun 26, 2013 11:25:00 PM


So you want to learn more about PXI, well you've come to the right place - below you will find a introduction to PXI.

What is PXI - Background and History

PXI, short for PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation, is a rugged PC-based platform that offers a solution for measurement and automation systems. With PXI you benefit from the low-cost, high-performance, and flexibility of the latest PC technology and the benefits of an open industry standard. PXI combines standard PC technology with the mechanical form/factor from the CompactPCI™ specification, and added integrated timing and triggering to deliver a rugged platform with major performance improvements compared to other test and measurement architectures. 

PXI's mechanical, electrical, and software features define complete systems for test and measurement, data acquisition, and manufacturing applications. PXI has become a dominant industry standard for measurement and automation applications such as military and aerospace, automotive, manufacturing test, machine monitoring, and industrial test. 

The PXI Standard

PXI Systems Alliance

PXI is governed by the PXI Systems Alliance (PXISA), a group of more than 50 companies chartered to promote the standard, ensure interoperability, and maintain the PXI specification. Because PXI is an open specification, any vendor who joins the Consortium is able to build PXI products. CompactPCI, the standard regulated by the PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group (PICMG), and PXI modules can reside in the same PXI system without any conflict because interoperability between CompactPCI and PXI is a key feature of the PXI specification.

The PXI standard defines the mechanical, electrical and software interfaces provided by PXI compliant products, ensuring that integration costs and software costs are minimized, and allows for trouble free multi-vendor solutions to be implemented.

In use, a PXI system appears as an extension to the PCI slots in the user’s controller, regardless of whether the controller is embedded in the PXI chassis or is a separate computer.

Most PXI instrument modules are simple register based products that use software drivers to configure them as useful instruments; taking advantage of the increasing power of computers to improve hardware access and simplify embedded software in the modules. The open architecture allows hardware to be reconfigured to provide new facilities and features that are difficult to imitate in comparable bench instruments. 

The PXI modules, which provide the instrument functions, are plugged into a chassis. This chassis may include its own controller running industry standard operating systems, or a PCI to PXI bridge that provides a high speed link to a desktop PC. 

CompactPCI and PXI products are interchangeable, they can be used in either CompactPCI or PXI chassis, however installation in the alternate chassis type limits the functionality of certain features.

What is PXI - The System consists of three main components:

  • Pickering Interfaces PXI ChassisPXI chassis - the chassis is the backbone of the system - it contains a high performance
    backplane giving the cards in the system the ability to communicate rapidly with one another. It also provides power and cooling and the chassis normally ranges from four slots up to twenty. 

    The chassis are typically designed to house either 3U or 6U PXI modules. The PXI standard supports the design of chassis that allow both 3U and 6U modules. The PXI specification does not set a rigorous standard for what can be included in a PXI chassis, though all must comply with the mandatory parts of the specification. For that reason, PXI chassis vary in their capability and the user needs to choose the chassis that is right for their specific application.

  • The System Controller- The PXI chassis can use either an embedded controller in the Slot 1 position, or an interface module allowing connection to an external controller (such as a PC). The use of a standard PC provides a particularly cost effective, but powerful option.

The choice of the type of PXI controller will vary depending on the application. PXI has sufficient flexibility to enable it to be configured for internal embedded controllers, laptops and desktop PCs.
 
     
  • Pickering Interfaces PXI ModulesThe Modules - these come in many different varieties including test instruments that take a wide variety of measurements such as voltage, current, frequency as well as signal and waveform generators. They can also perform other functions including boundary scan test, image aquisition, power supplies, switching and more. 

PXI Software

The PXI standard is reliant on a standardized software and hardware environment. Since PXI is based on the PCI standard, many of the PCI routines can be moved into the PXI environment.The PXI modules cannot be controlled from a physical front panel, therefore software control via the backplane is required. Minimum requirements are for Window 32-bit drivers.  Some vendors support Linux or other OS’ as well, but Windows is the minimum.

IVI drivers are optional. IVI Drivers are sophisticated instrument drivers that feature increased performance and flexibility for more intricate test applications that require interchangeability, state-caching, or simulation of instruments. To learn more about IVI drivers, please visit the IVI Foundation's web site: http://www.ivifoundation.org

PXI Market Acceptance

In 2009 the PXISA announced that there were more than 100,000 PXI systems deployed containing more than 600,000 instruments. Today, there are more than 55 PXISA member companies that have produced more than 1,500 different PXI modules. (Source: PXISA web site) As shown in Figure 1, the 2011 Frost and Sullivan Modular Instrumentation study expects the PXI instrumentation market to grow at a compounded annual growth rate of 18.1% for the next 6 years.  At this rate, the PXI market is expected to exceed 1 billion USD by 2017.

Projected  PXI Modular Instrument Revenues by Standard

Figure 1 – Projected Modular Instrument Revenues by Standard

Source:  2011 Frost & Sullivan report “High Growth Test & Measurement Market Opportunity: Modular Instruments”

What is PXI Express?

As the commercial PC industry drastically improves the available bus bandwidth by upgrading from PCI to PCI Express, PXI has the ability to meet even more application needs by integrating PCI Express into the PXI standard. To ensure the successful integration of PCI Express technology into PXI and CompactPCI backplanes, engineers within the PXISA and the PICMG, worked to ensure that PCI Express technology can be integrated into the backplane while still preserving some compatibility with the large installed base of existing modules. With PXI Express, users will benefit from significantly increased bandwidth, guaranteed backward compatibility, and additional timing and synchronization features. 

Take a look at our Knowledgebase article - "Comparing PXI and PXI Express" 

You can also take a look at the PXI System Alliance's website  (www.pxisa.org) for more information on PXI Express.

PXImate-practical-guide-to-PXIWant more PXI Information?

Pickering Interfaces has published a book, PXImate, this book provides an overview of the PXI standard together with useful information about the technology behind the switching and instrumentation modules a typical chassis can contain. It is a guide for those new to PXI systems and a useful source of reference material for the more experienced.    

Click here to get your free copy!

Topics: PXI, PXI Switching